What Are Rods?

Metal rods are metals and alloys designed in the pattern of round bars or rod, rectangular or flat bars, square bars, hexagons, and other patterns of bar stock. These shapes also come in billet form and generally include a cross-section based on the shape of rod or bar stock.

What are Rods Used For?

Reinforcing bars are also a type of metal rods that are used to give strength or internally sustain the concrete and masonry structures. Some other forms of metal rods include coil stock and hollow tube stock. Rods made of ferrous metals and alloys are iron based.

Materials for Rods

Titanium

Stainless Steel

Tungsten

Molybdenum

Berylliyum

Stainless Steel Wire

Types of Rods

Metal rods can be categorized into different types and categories on the basis of metal used in their construction. Hence on the basis of metal used, metal rods can be categorized into following types –

These different types of ferrous and non-ferrous metal rods are described in brief below –

Ferrous metal rods

Rods made of ferrous metals and alloys are iron based. Some common ferrous metals and alloys used to make rods are carbon steel, stainless steel, alloy steel, cast iron, tool steel, and cast steel. Plain carbon steels are based on iron, carbon, and other alloying elements in small varying amounts. Alloy steel is used in a variety of industrial applications and can be fabricated easily by machining, forming, casting, and welding. An alloy of carbon and iron, tool steel is known for its high levels of hardening and property alloying elements. The alloy exhibits superior wear resistance, however it is difficult to fabricate in its hardened form. Cast iron is another ferrous metal, which is used in metal rods. An iron alloy, carbon alloy contains high amount of carbon. Cast steel is an alloy, which is produced by pouring molten iron into a mold.

Nonferrous metal rods

Nonferrous metal rods can be defined as rods that do not contain any iron or iron alloys. Some common nonferrous metals that are used to make rods are aluminum, copper, cobalt, nickel, refractory, and titanium. Light in weight, aluminum and its alloys exhibit superior corrosion resistance, ductility, and strength. The metal can be fabricated easily by forming, machining, or welding. Cobalt metal rods are known for their superior strength, toughness, corrosion and oxidation sistance, and temperature strength. Copper, brass, or bronze alloys are known for their superior thermal and electrical conductivity, good corrosion resistance, strength and ductility. Though pure copper is difficult to weld, it has found to be a useful alloying element in aluminum alloys and powder metal-based iron alloys.

Mechanical Properties Of Rods


Tensile strength

or ultimate tensile strength (UTS) at break is the maximum amount of stress (force per unit area) required from stretching or pulling to fail (necking) or break the material under tension-loading test conditions. It is an intensive property and therefore does not depend on size, but is affected by surface defects and the temperature of the environment. This property is primarily used in the design of brittle members where breakage of a material from stretching is a concern.


Yield strength

is the maximum amount of stress (force per unit area) required to deform or impart permanent plastic deformation (typically of 0.2%) in the material under tension-loading test conditions. The yield point occurs when elastic (linear) stress-strain behavior changes to plastic (non-linear) behavior. Ductile materials typically deviate from Hooke's law or linear behavior at some higher stress level. Knowledge of the yield point is vital when designing a component since it generally represents an upper limit to the load that can be applied.


Elongation

is the percent amount of deformation that occurs during a tensile test or other mechanical test. Ductile materials will be more inclined to deform than to break. Designs that require metal parts to fit and maintain a fixed shape under stress should consider the part’s elongation properties.

Tensile modulus

or Young's modulus is a material constant that indicates the variation in strain produced under an applied tensile load. Materials with a higher modulus of elasticity have higher stiffness or rigidity.

It is important to consider the testing conditions under which the properties of a material have been found. Operating conditions that differ from the testing environment may have adverse effects on a material’s properties.

How Metal Rods Are Made

Metal shapes can be designed and manipulated through a large number of processes which are grouped into different categories. They are casting processes, joining and assembly processes, deformation processes, material removal processes, heat treating processes, and finishing processes.

Casting processes

involve pouring molten metal into a mold cavity where, once solid, the metal takes the shape of the cavity. Continuous casting processes allow continuous production of stock shapes.

Joining and assembly processes

include welding, soldering, brazing, fastening, and other processes that connect parts permanently or semi-permanently to form a new entity.

Deformation processes

include metal forming, roll forming, extrusion, forging  They use plastic deformation, where deformation is induced by external compressive forces .

Heat treating processes

include annealing, quenching, tempering, aging, homogenizing, solution treating, and precipitation hardening. Heat treating modifies the strength, ductility, hardness, metal stock

Finishing processes

engineer the structure of the surface to produce the desired surface finish,corrosion resistance, of metal shapes. Polishing, peening, galvanizing, painting,are types of finishing processes.

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