What Are Water
Distribution Pipes?

A water pipe is any pipe or tube designed to transport drinking water to consumers. If the water is treated before distribution or at the point of use (POU) depends on the context. In well planned and designed water distribution networks, water is generally treated before distribution and sometimes also chlorinated, in order to prevent recontamination on the way to the end user.

The varieties of water pipes include large diameter main pipes, which supply entire towns, smaller branch lines that supply a street or group of buildings, or small diameter pipes located within individual buildings. Water pipes can range in size from giant mains of up to 3.65 m in diameter to small 12.7 mm pipes used to feed individual outlets within a building. Materials commonly used to construct water pipes include polyvinyl chloride (PVC), cast iron, copper, steel and in older systems concrete or fired clay. Joining individual water pipe lengths to make up extended runs is possible with flange, nipple, compression or soldered joints (SCOTT 2011).

What are Water Distribution pipes used For?

Water pipes are required almost everywhere, especially for drinking water distribution. The most robust and durable type of water pipes are probably made from cement. Due to their heavy weight they are however difficult and expensive to install. PVC pipes are easier to install and much lighter, and thus particularly suited for remote areas that are difficult to access.

Materials for Pipes

AISI 4140

Hastelloy

Aluminium

Alloy Steel

Specifications of Pipes

RANGE

15 NB UP TO 1200 NB IN SCH 5S , 10S ,10, 20 , 40S , 40 , STD , 60 , 80S , 80 , XS , 100 , 120 , 140 , 160 & XXS

FORM

SEAMLESS / ERW / WELDED IN ROUND & SQUARE

Apertures

0.3mm and finer.

Finish

Available in rolls or in cut circles and also as fabricated filters.

Construction

Woven with plain or twill weaves.

Materials

Inconel, Monel, Titanium, Stainless Steel, Phosphor Bronze, Brass, Copper, Nickel

Grades Of Pipes

Stainless Steel

ASTM / ASME 201, 202, 301, 304, 304L, 310, 310S, 316L, 316TI, 317, 317L, 321, 347, 409, 409M, 409L, 410, 410S, 420, 430, 431, 441, 444, 446, 17.4PH, 904L

Super Duplex Steel

S32750

Duplex Steel

ASTM / ASME SA 790 UNS NO S 31803 , S 32205 , S 32550 , S 32750 , S 32760.

Carbon Steel

ASTM / ASME A 335 GRP 1 , P 5 , P 9 , P 11 , P 12 , P 22 , P 23 , P 91

Alloys Steel

ASTM / ASME A 691 GRP1 CR , 1 1/4 CR , 2 1/4 CR , 5 CR , 9CR , 91.

Nickel Alloys

Nickel Alloys 200, Nickel Alloys 201

Titanium

Grade 1, Grade 4, Grade 5(Ti 6Al-4V), Grade 6(Ti 5Al-2.5Sn), Grade 7, Grade 11, Grade 12, 8Ai-1Mo-1V, Grade 9(3Al-2.5V), 6Al-6V-25n, 6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo, 6Al-7Nb, Grade 23(Ti 6AL-4V ELI), Grade 5 ELI

Inconel

Inconel 600, Inconel 601, Inconel 625, Inconel 625LCF, Inconel 686, Inconel 718, Inconel 800, Inconel 825, Inconel X-750 , Inconel 690, Inconel 602, Inconel 617, Inconel 925, Inconel A-289, Inconel AL-6XN, AL-904L

Hastelloy

Hastelloy C-22, Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy C-2000, Hastelloy C-4, Hastelloy X, Hastelloy B, Hastelloy N, Hastelloy G

Molybdenum

ASTM / ASME A 182 GR F 5, F 9 , F 11 , F 12 , F 22 , F 91, ASTM B387, Ferro Molybdenum

Cobalt

Cobalt HS-6, Cobalt HS-4, Cobalt HS-25, Sterlite Grade 1, Sterlite Grade 6, Sterlite Grade 12, Sterlite Grade 21

Niobium

ASTM B394, R04200 R04210

Nimonic

Nimonic75, Nimonic80, Nimonic85, Nimonic90, Nimonic263, etc

Tungsten

W1 WAl1, W61, etc, Carbonide Tungsten, Copper Tungsten, Nickel Tungsten

Nichrome

Nichrome90, Nichrome80, Nichrome80A, Nichrome RW80, Nichrome75, etc

Magnesium

Magnesium AL017100, AL017140, AL017150, AL017160, AL017200, AL017210, AL017250, etc.

Tantalum

Tantalum – Grade 1.

Monel

Monel 400, Monel k500

MU-METAL

MU-METAL

Zirconium

Zirconium 702, Zirconium 705, Zirconium 705, Zirconium-2, Zirconium-4

Beryllium Copper

Alloy 25 UNSC17200

Aluminium

1050,1100, 2017, 7150, 7178, 7575, 2050, 7085, 2011 A92011, 2014A A92014, 2024 A92024, 2219, 5052 A95052, 5083 A95083, 5754, 6061 A96061 A86061, 6063, 6082 A96082, 7071 7020, 7050 A97050, 7075 A97075 A87075, 7175

Copper Alloys

C 11000, C 10200, C 12200, C 51100, C 51000, C 51900, C 52000, C 52100, C 74500, C 75700, C 75400, C 76400, C 77000, C 21000, C 22000, C 23000, C 24000, C 26000, C 26800, C 27000, C 27200, C 28000

Pipes & Tubes Materials & Grades:

Specifications

ASTM A/ASME SA213/A249/A269/A312/A358 CL

Dimensions

ASTM, ASME, and API

Schedule

SCH 10, SCH20, SCH30, SCH40, STD, SCH60, XS, SCH80, SCH120, SCH140, SCH160, XXS

Wall Thickness

Schedule 5S – Schedule XXS.

Size – Seamless 304 Pipes & Tubes

1/2″ NB – 16″ NB

ERW 304 Pipes & Tubes

1/2″ NB – 24″ NB

EFW 304 Pipes & Tubes

6″ NB – 100″ NB

Form

Round, Square, Rectangular, Hydraulic Etc

Length

Single Random, Double Random & Cut Length.

Types

Seamless / ERW / Welded / Fabricated / LSAW Pipes

End

Plain End, Beveled End, Treaded

Types of Pipes

Steel pipes

Steel pipes are comparatively expensive, but they are the strongest and most durable of all water supply pipes. They can withstand high water pressure, come in convenient (longer) lengths than most other pipes and thus incur lower installation/transportation costs. They can also be easily welded (LEE n.y.).

Galvanised steel or iron pipes

Galvanised steel or iron is the traditional piping material in the plumbing industry for the conveyance of water and wastewater. Although still used throughout the world, its popularity is declining. The use of galvanised steel or iron as a conveyer for drinking water is problematic where water flow is slow or static for periods of time because it causes rust from internal corrosion. Galvanised steel or iron piping may also give an unpalatable taste and smell to the water conveyed under corrosive conditions (WHO 2006).

Cast iron pipes

Cast iron pipes are quite stable and well suited for high water pressure. However, cast iron pipes are heavy, which makes them unsuitable for inaccessible places due to transportation problems. In addition, due to their weight they generally come in short lengths increasing costs for layout and jointing.

Concrete cement Pipes

Concrete cement pipes are expensive but non-corrosive by nature. Their advantage is that they are extremely strong and durable. However, being bulky and heavy, they are harder and more costly to handle, install and transport (LEE n.y.).

Plasticised polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes

PVC pipes are non-corrosive, extremely light and thus easy to handle and transport. Still, they are strong and come in long lengths that lower installation/transportation costs (LEE n.y.). However, they are prone to physical damage if exposed overground and become brittle when exposed to ultraviolet light. In addition to the problems associated with the expansion and contraction of PVC, the material will soften and deform if exposed to temperatures over 65 °C (WHO 2006).

asbestos cement pipes

Asbestos cement pipe, also commonly referred to as transite pipe, was constructed from cement and asbestos fibers. It was highly resistant to corrosion and was widely used in drainage systems and gas lines. Government and private enterprises use asbestos-cement pipes for such applications as fresh and seawater mains, gas mains, sewerage, mining operations, agriculture, electrical cables, venting flues, etc.

Pipe Material Properties

Ultimate Tensile Strength 

that is the capacity of a material to withstand when subjected to tension.

Yield Strength 

that is the load at which plastic deformation or you can say permanent deformation start.

Elasticity 

is the ability of a material to resume its normal shape after the load is removed just like rubber.

% Elongation

Percent elongation is a measure of ductility.

Hardness

is the ability of a material to resist plastic deformation.

Toughness 

he ability of a material to absorb energy before fracture.

Creep resistance

ability to resist any kind of distortion when under a load over an extended period.

Fatigue Resistance

is the ability of a material to withstand cyclic load for a given number of cycles before it fails.

Application Of Pipes

Plumbing

Water Distribution

Irrigation

Pipeline Transporting Gas

Oil Casing

Compressed Air Systems

High Pressure Storage Vessels

Tap Water

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