What is Fastners?

The term “fastener” refers to bolts, nails, screws, magnets and other kinds of connecting devices ratchet straps. Knowing the correct fastener types to use will help your project run more smoothly.A Fastener. Fasteners though not visualized by us directly or even thought of, play a vital role in our day to day life. Be it from, holding the chairs and tables we sit on; be it the automobiles we travel; every inch of what we use is held in place by means of a Fastene

What are Fastners Used For?

We mainly use a fastener for a non-permanent joint. What do we mean by a non-permanent joint? A joint that can be removed or dismantled without the destruction or damage of the joining components can be termed as a non-permanent joint. A welding joint or riveted joint can be termed as a permanent joint, which if required to be removed tends to damage or destruct both the joining components as well as the joint itself.

Materials for Fastners

Stainless

The Most Common Types of Fasteners

Mechanical fasteners come in different types. Each of those types also has many subtypes that you can choose from. Among the different types of fasteners, here are the most common ones:

Bolts

These types of fasteners help to hold two unthreaded parts together. They can be called the most common types of fasteners.

Screws

Screws are versatile fasteners with durable holding power. They have a similar structure to bolts. However, they do not need anything to keep them in place, unlike bolts.

Nuts

A nut comes with an internal thread that works with a bolt to hold components together.

Washers

They are small, circular discs shaped like an annulus. They also work together with nuts and bolts and serve important fastening functions.

Rivets

These are permanent fasteners that help secure several different types of components.

Specialty Fastners

The fastner types listed above are the most common. However, there is a range of additional specialized flange types available to suit a range of uses and environments. Other options include Castle nuts,Eye Bolt,Cap nuts,Large-flange rivets,Multi-Grip rivets,Spring Washer,Lead washer.

Fasteners Materials & Grades

Fasteners

Specifications

Fasteners Types

Bolt, Nut, Screw, Washers, Rings

Application

Fasteners can be used in racing industries such as racing motorcycles and cars, sailing boats and medical equipment, etc.

Size

M5-M50

Grades

Stainless Steel

ASTM / ASME 201, 202, 301, 304, 304L, 310, 310S, 316L, 316TI, 317, 317L, 321, 347, 409, 409M, 409L, 410, 410S, 420, 430, 431, 441, 444, 446, 17.4PH, 904L

Super Duplex Steel

S32750

Duplex Steel

ASTM / ASME SA 790 UNS NO S 31803 , S 32205 , S 32550 , S 32750 , S 32760.

Carbon Steel

ASTM / ASME A 335 GRP 1 , P 5 , P 9 , P 11 , P 12 , P 22 , P 23 , P 91

Alloys Steel

ASTM / ASME A 691 GRP1 CR , 1 1/4 CR , 2 1/4 CR , 5 CR , 9CR , 91.

Nickel Alloys

Nickel Alloys 200, Nickel Alloys 201

Titanium

Grade 1, Grade 4, Grade 5(Ti 6Al-4V), Grade 6(Ti 5Al-2.5Sn), Grade 7, Grade 11, Grade 12, 8Ai-1Mo-1V, Grade 9(3Al-2.5V), 6Al-6V-25n, 6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo, 6Al-7Nb, Grade 23(Ti 6AL-4V ELI), Grade 5 ELI

Inconel

Inconel 600, Inconel 601, Inconel 625, Inconel 625LCF, Inconel 686, Inconel 718, Inconel 800, Inconel 825, Inconel X-750 , Inconel 690, Inconel 602, Inconel 617, Inconel 925, Inconel A-289, Inconel AL-6XN, AL-904L

Hastelloy

Hastelloy C-22, Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy C-2000, Hastelloy C-4, Hastelloy X, Hastelloy B, Hastelloy N, Hastelloy G

Molybdenum

ASTM / ASME A 182 GR F 5, F 9 , F 11 , F 12 , F 22 , F 91, ASTM B387, Ferro Molybdenum

Cobalt

Cobalt HS-6, Cobalt HS-4, Cobalt HS-25, Sterlite Grade 1, Sterlite Grade 6, Sterlite Grade 12, Sterlite Grade 21

Niobium

ASTM B394, R04200 R04210

Nimonic

Nimonic75, Nimonic80, Nimonic85, Nimonic90, Nimonic263, etc

Tungsten

W1 WAl1, W61, etc, Carbonide Tungsten, Copper Tungsten, Nickel Tungsten

Nichrome

Nichrome90, Nichrome80, Nichrome80A, Nichrome RW80, Nichrome75, etc

Magnesium

Magnesium AL017100, AL017140, AL017150, AL017160, AL017200, AL017210, AL017250, etc.

Tantalum

Tantalum – Grade 1.

Monel

Monel 400, Monel k500

MU-METAL

MU-METAL

Zirconium

Zirconium 702, Zirconium 705, Zirconium 705, Zirconium-2, Zirconium-4

Beryllium Copper

Alloy 25 UNSC17200

Aluminium

1050,1100, 2017, 7150, 7178, 7575, 2050, 7085, 2011 A92011, 2014A A92014, 2024 A92024, 2219, 5052 A95052, 5083 A95083, 5754, 6061 A96061 A86061, 6063, 6082 A96082, 7071 7020, 7050 A97050, 7075 A97075 A87075, 7175

Copper Alloys

C 11000, C 10200, C 12200, C 51100, C 51000, C 51900, C 52000, C 52100, C 74500, C 75700, C 75400, C 76400, C 77000, C 21000, C 22000, C 23000, C 24000, C 26000, C 26800, C 27000, C 27200, C 28000

General Design Information

Fastner Materials

Bolts can be made from many materials, but most bolts are made of carbon steel, alloy steel, or stainless steel. Stainless steels include both iron- and nickel-based chromium alloys. Titanium and aluminum bolts have limited usage, primarily in the aerospace industry.

Carbon steel is the cheapest and most common bolt material. Most hardware stores sell carbon steel bolts, which are usually zinc plated to resist corrosion. The typical ultimate strength of this bolt material is 55 ksi.

An alloy steel is a high-strength carbon steel that can be heat treated up to 300 ksi. However, it is not corrosion resistant and must therefore have some type of coating to protect it from corrosion. Aerospace alloy steel fasteners are usually cadmium plated for corrosion protection.

Bolts of stainless steel (CRES) are available in a variety of alloys with ultimate strengths from 70 to 220 ksi. The major advantage of using CRES is that it normally requires no protective coating and has a wider service temperature range than plain carbon or alloy steels.

A partial listing of bolt materials is given in table I. The following precautions are to be noted:

  1. The bolt plating material is usually the limiting factor on maximum service temperature.
  2. Carbon steel and alloy steel are unsatisfactory (become brittle) at temperatures below -65 °F.
  3. Hydrogen embrittlement is a problem with most common methods of plating, unless special procedures are used. (This subject is covered more fully in the corrosion section.)
  4. Series 400 CRES contains only 12 percent chromium and thus will corrode in some environments.
  5. The contact of dissimilar materials can create galvanic corrosion, which can become a major problem. (Galvanic corrosion is covered in a subsequent section of this manual.)

Summary Of Fastener Materials

Material

Surface treatment

Useful design temperature limit, °F

Ultimate tensile strength at room temperature, ksi

Comments

Carbon steel

Zinc plate

-65 to 250

55 and up

---

Alloy steels

Cadmium plate, nickel plate, zinc plate, or chromium plate

-65 to limiting temperature of plating

Up to 300

Some can be used at 900 °F

A-286 stainless

Passivated per MIL-S-5002

-423 to 1200

Up to 220

---

17-4PH stainless

None

-300 to 600

Up to 220

---

17-4PH stainless

Passivated

-200 to 600

Up to 220

---

300 series stainless

Furnace oxidized

-200 to 600

70 to 140

Oxidizing reduces galling

410, 416, and 430 stainless

Passivated

-250 to 1200

Up to 180

47 ksi at 1200 °F; will corrode slightly

U-212 stainless

Cleaned and passivated per MIL-S-5002

1200

185

140 ksi at 1200 °F

Inconel 718 stainless

Passivated per QQ-P-35 or cadmium plated

-423 to 900 or cadmium plate limit

Up to 220

---

Inconel X-750 stainless

None

-320 to 1200

Up to 180

136 ksi at 1200 °F

Waspalloy stainless

None

-423 to 1600

150

---

Titanium

None

-350 to 500

Up to 160

---

Applications Of Fastners

Airospace industry

Food And Breverage Industry

Automative And Railway Industry

Metal And Mineral Mining

Marine And Offshore Industry

Process Industry

Paper And Pulp Processing

Chemical Industry

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